Immunology Virology

Immunology Virology

By 99 Dictionaries: The world of terms

Immunology VirologyImmunology VirologyImmunology VirologyImmunology VirologyImmunology Virology

Big scientific encyclopedia Immunology and Virology.

The functioning of the immune system is studied by the science of immunology. Immunology studies the body's reactions to antigens.

The immune system protects the physique from infections, toxins, and cancer cells. The immune system should recognize a variety of pathogens, from viruses to multicellular worms, and distinguish them from the body's personal healthy tissues.

Immunological memory types the idea of vaccination and allows the physique to develop a stronger immune response to a pathogen after the primary encounter with it.

Immune system dysfunctions result in autoimmune illnesses, inflammatory ailments and most cancers. When the immune system is weak, there are immunodeficiency states that make the body extra vulnerable to infections. Immunodeficiency may be either congenital because of genetic abnormalities or acquired, for instance, on account of HIV an infection or taking immunosuppressive medicine.

Antibodies - the globular proteins of blood plasma, designed to neutralize the cells of pathogens and viruses, protein poisons. Each antibody recognizes an antigen, and within a given antigen - a particular part of it, an epitope. Antibodies can neutralize them, or entice phagocytes to destroy them.

Virology research viruses and virus-like agents. The primary consideration is paid to the structure of viruses, their classification and evolution, strategies of infection of host cells, their interplay with the physiology and immunity of the host organism, and diseases. Virology is a branch of microbiology. Viruses can cause viral diseases and tumors.

Thanks to the mass vaccination of the population, smallpox was eliminated. There are a quantity of viral diseases which are incurable at the moment stage of the event of science, essentially the most famous of which is HIV an infection.

Serology is the science of the properties of blood serum. Typically, serology is known because the part of immunology that research the interaction of serum antibodies with antigens.

Serological reactions could be direct - agglutination, passive hemagglutination, precipitation, and so on., and oblique - a neutralization reaction, a hemagglutination inhibition reaction.

Complex serological reactions are composed of several easy ones: bacteriolysis, complement fixation reaction, etc.

Allergy is a typical immunopathological course of, expressed by the hypersensitivity of the body's immune system with repeated publicity of the allergen to the body previously sensitized by this allergen. Symptoms: ache in the eyes, swelling, runny nostril, hives, sneezing, coughing, and so forth.

A meals allergy is an abnormal immune response to food. Symptoms of an allergic response often last from a few minutes to a number of hours. When signs are very severe, anaphylactic shock can occur.

Malignant tumor is extraordinarily dangerous for the life of the physique. Malignant epithelial tumors are known as cancer, this term can mean chorionepithelioma, endothelioma, sarcoma, and so on.

Malignant neoplasm is characterised by the appearance of uncontrollably dividing cells able to invasion of adjacent tissues and metastasis to distant organs. The illness is associated with impaired cell proliferation and differentiation because of genetic disorders.

The development of medication and methods for the therapy of malignant tumors is a crucial and nonetheless unsolved scientific drawback.

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